Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine pathology in which the metabolism is disturbed due to a lack or poor action of the hormone insulin.
A distinction is made between insulin-dependent (type 1) and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.
In the first case, patients have to inject themselves with insulin preparations by injection, because the hormone in their body is either produced in insufficient quantities or is completely absent.
In the second type, the interaction of insulin with cells is disrupted.
Despite the different mechanisms of development of pathology, the main role in its therapy is attributed to dietary nutrition.
Features of the diet for diabetics
In the past, a dietary inhibition system was the only way to curb hyperglycemia, or high glucose levels. Now the diet of patients has expanded significantly. Diabetics are advised to follow several important rules for effective blood sugar control.
Patients should not be hungry or overeat. These conditions are dangerous for their health. You need to eat in such a way that the amount of carbohydrate consumed is distributed evenly throughout the day.
General dietary requirements:
- fractional nutrition (at least 6 times a day);
- calculation of carbohydrates consumed;
- limit animal fats;
- the introduction of plant foods in the diet;
- preference for steamed, baked, boiled foods;
- avoiding or limiting foods that increase the carbohydrate load;
- Balanced diet;
- replace sugar with substitutes;
- consumption of coarse fiber foods;
- compliance with the alcohol consumption regime;
- reduce salt intake;
- elimination of alcohol.
You can diversify your diet by purchasing utensils that allow you to cook food without oil.
So that carbohydrates are absorbed more slowly and do not cause jumps in the increase in blood sugar, the following recommendations should be observed:
- Eat coarse or grainy foods, such as crumbly cereals instead of mashed or boiled ones.
- Meals should not be hot because temperature affects the absorption of glucose.
- Fiber in food inhibits the absorption of simple carbohydrates and helps break down cholesterol.
- Simple carbohydrates are best consumed after the main meal.
The menu may include foods that contain simple carbohydrates with fiber, such as fruits and berries. Glucose absorption is slowed down if it is consumed with protein (protein cream) or fat. However, keep in mind that "slow" carbohydrates are also absorbed into the bloodstream, increasing sugar.
Nutritional differences in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Since the reasons for the increase in blood sugar in the first and second types of disease are different, there are several approaches to the diet of patients. For insulin-dependent patients, nutrition is more varied. Since they more often suffer from this pathology at a young age, high-calorie foods are included in the diet. When developing a diet, the units of cereals consumed are taken into account.
In type 2 diabetes, the main task of nutrition is weight loss. In this case, the menu is calculated based on the calorie content of the products. The patient's diet is more rigid. They are not allowed to consume sugar, fatty foods, and foods that increase cholesterol.
The concept of "bread unit" (XE) was introduced to take into account the quantitative composition of carbohydrates. For 1 XE, it is considered 25 g of bread or 12 g of sugar (carbohydrates). Diabetics need a bread unit diagram to calculate the short insulin delivered.
1 XE requires 2 to 4 units. insulin. The individual need for additional insulin administration according to XE is determined using a self-monitoring diary, which must be kept by the patient.
At one meal, a diabetic should not eat more than 7 XE. The main carbohydrate load occurs in the first half of the day.
In order not to constantly calculate the bread units by the weight of the products, we have created tables of products taking into account their energy value.
What is the glycemic index of foods
The glycemic index (GI) is an indicator that indicates how much blood sugar may increase with the use of a particular product compared to the intake of glucose.
Foods with a high GI (70 or more):
- my dear,
- mashed potatoes;
- sweet soda;
- sweets - corn sticks, puffed rice.
Medium GI (56-69):
- black bread.
The lowest GIs have:
- dairy products;
- peas, beans, lentils and other legumes.
The rate of absorption is influenced by cooking, food integrity and temperature.
In diabetes mellitus, only medium and low GI foods are allowed.
List of authorized and prohibited products
The principles of a diet for diabetics with different types of illnesses differ. However, there are some dishes that endocrinologists do not recommend to eat.
The list of prohibited foods includes:
- fried potatoes, fries, crisps;
- sweet fruits - grapes;
- fatty meats;
- smoked meats;
- canned foods in oil;
- sweet curd, curd mass;
- sweet yogurts;
- pastries white bread and white flour;
- juice from the store;
- a soda;
- sweets, chocolate;
- condensed milk;
- Fast food.
Patients will need to fall in love with these foods and drinks:
- mineral water;
- rosehip compote;
- vegetable juice;
- freshly squeezed fruit juices from berries and sweet and sour fruits;
- unsweetened citrus;
- frozen and fresh berries;
- low fat dairy products without sugar;
- dietary meat - chicken, turkey, veal, rabbit meat;
- green vegetables;
- complete bakery products;
To reduce the starch content of vegetables and grains, it is recommended to soak them before cooking.
Menu compilation rules
When developing a menu, one should take into account not only the carbohydrate load and calories of food, but also the activity of the diabetic. Exercise lowers blood sugar levels. In type 1 diabetes, it is recommended to eat 1 XE for every hour of physical activity. This will prevent you from having to change your bolus insulin dose.
With obesity, a dietician helps to compose a diet taking into account the energy content (calorie content) of food and daily energy expenditure during physical activity. The calculation takes into account the patient's sex, age and degree of obesity. It is allowed to organize fasting days (with type 2 diabetes). However, fasting is contraindicated in these patients.
When preparing the menu, the general condition of the diabetic is taken into account. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, adolescents and debilitated patients need protein intake. If the patient has kidney or liver failure, ketoacidosis, protein intake is reduced.
Do not forget the other nutrients which are involved in the metabolism: vitamins, zinc, copper, manganese. Due to the tendency of patients to pathologies of the cardiovascular system, the salt content of dishes is reduced.
Sample menu for a week
- breakfast: buckwheat porridge, bran protein bread with butter, tea;
- snack: coleslaw with egg;
- lunch: chicken soup, vegetable salad with herbs, green beans with white meat cutlet, compote, diabetic rye bread;
- snack: yoghurt bread;
- dinner: steamed zrazy with fish, rye bread, vegetable salad;
- snack: fermented milk drink.
- breakfast: oatmeal, cereal bread with butter, tea;
- snack: salad with parsley, onions and mushrooms;
- lunch: pea soup, baked chicken with vegetables, vegetable salad, cereal bread, drink;
- snack: baked fermented milk with cookies;
- dinner: stewed fish with vegetables, cereal bread, fruit juice;
- snack: yogurt.
- breakfast: "Artek" porridge, bran protein bread with butter, coffee;
- snack: salad of celery, apples and carrots;
- lunch: borscht, buckwheat porridge with a steamed cutlet, sauerkraut salad, protein bread with bran, compote;
- afternoon snack: cottage cheese with fruit;
- dinner: bigos with sauerkraut and meat, protein bread with bran, juice;
- snack: baked apple.
- breakfast: eggs, rye bread with butter, tea;
- snack: cottage cheese with yogurt;
- lunch: green borscht, baked eggplants with meat, tomato salad with low-fat sour cream, rye bread, compote;
- afternoon snack: curd pudding with tea;
- dinner: meat stew with vegetables, rye bread, drink;
- snack: kefir bread.
- breakfast: pearl barley porridge, buttered cereal bread, tea (chicory, coffee);
- snack: fruit salad with yogurt;
- lunch: fish soup, fish cutlet garnished with vegetables, pepper and cucumber salad, cereal bread, citrus drink;
- to taste: milk bread;
- dinner: steamed cutlet with milk sauce, porridge, cereal bread, lemonade;
- snack: fruit.
- breakfast: veal omelet, protein bread with bran and cheese, tea;
- snack: cottage cheese with berries;
- lunch: mushroom soup, porridge with boiled (cooked) meat, canned peas with onions and herbs, protein bread with bran, compote;
- afternoon snack: oatmeal cookies with baked fermented milk;
- dinner: zucchini stuffed with meat, porridge, protein bread with bran, drink;
- snack: baked fermented milk.
- breakfast: whole rice with minced meat and cabbage (cabbage rolls), rye bread with butter, tea;
- snack: yogurt bread;
- lunch: meatball soup, chicken omelet, red cabbage salad, rye bread, drink;
- snack: kefir with cookies;
- dinner: fish cakes, baked potatoes, rye bread, drink;
- snack: milk cookie.
The test menu is compiled by a nutritionist. In the future, the diabetic himself supplements the diet, taking into account the recommendations of the doctor.
Ready meals for diabetics
To eat well with diabetes mellitus, you need to put in a lot of time and effort. Most people with diabetes simply don't have enough time to properly compose the menu and prepare food, so now I would like to tell you about the Cryodieta company, which helps make life easier for people with diabetes.
Cryodieta is a delivery service of cooked and tasty meals not only for diabetics, but also for people who want to lose weight. The menu was prepared by competent specialists - nutritionists and doctors.
Thanks to the use of a special "shock freezing" technology, all you have to do is reheat the food in a microwave or multicooker and enjoy a tasty meal. At the same time, freezing retains all the nutrients.
The main advantages of "Cryodiet":
- production of products in an ecologically clean area of the Novgorod region;
- prompt delivery in person;
- Variety of foods;
- shock freezing (preserves food without preservatives);
- more affordable prices compared to competitors.
Examples of dishes
A diabetic ready meal delivery service operates in major cities, so if you want to eat healthy diet foods and not spend a lot of time there, order a weekly menu from the official website.
So that patients do not suffer from the lack of sweets, sweeteners can be added to the dishes. They are divided into three groups:
- Carbohydrates - fructose, sorbose, xylitol, sorbitol, molasses.
- Protein sweeteners - miraculin, monelin.
- Synthetic - aspartame, sodium cyclamate.
Endocrinologists recommend using the natural sweetener stevia. Its leaves contain a complex of glycosides 200 times sweeter than sugar. The sweetener is beneficial for obesity, high cholesterol, and high blood sugar. Due to its ability to normalize metabolism, stevia helps restore the antitoxic function of the liver.
Plant glycosides boost immunity, reduce sugar levels, and have a beneficial effect on the digestive and endocrine systems. Drinks containing stevia extract correct cravings for sweet and fatty foods and help you shed extra pounds.
High blood sugar is not a death sentence for patients if you learn to diet and use healthy sweets instead of sugar. Also do not forget about the mandatory consultation with an endocrinologist.